Computer future paper research use
The beginnings of the ARPANET and the Internet in the university research community promoted the academic tradition of open publication of ideas and results. However, the normal cycle of traditional academic publication was too formal and too slow for the dynamic exchange of ideas essential to creating networks. In a key step was taken by S. These memos were intended to be an informal fast distribution way to share ideas with other network researchers. At first the RFCs were printed on paper and distributed via snail mail. Jon Postel acted as RFC Editor as well as managing the centralized administration of required protocol number assignments, roles that he continued to play until his death, October 16, When some consensus or a least a consistent set of ideas had come together a specification document would be prepared.
Such a specification would then be used as the base for implementations by the various research teams. The open access to the RFCs for free, if you have any kind of a connection to the Internet promotes the growth of the Internet because it allows the actual specifications to be used for examples in college classes and by entrepreneurs developing new systems.
Email has been a significant factor in all areas of the Internet, and that is certainly true in the development of protocol specifications, technical standards, and Internet engineering. The very early RFCs often presented a set of ideas developed by the researchers at one location to the rest of the community. After email came into use, the authorship pattern changed — RFCs were presented by joint authors with common view independent of their locations.
The use of specialized email mailing lists has been long used in the development of protocol specifications, and continues to be an important tool. The IETF now has in excess of 75 working groups, each working on a different aspect of Internet engineering. Each of these working groups has a mailing list to discuss one or more draft documents under development. When consensus is reached on a draft document it may be distributed as an RFC.
This unique method for evolving new capabilities in the network will continue to be critical to future evolution of the Internet. The Internet is as much a collection of communities as a collection of technologies, and its success is largely attributable to both satisfying basic community needs as well as utilizing the community in an effective way to push the infrastructure forward.
The early ARPANET researchers worked as a close-knit community to accomplish the initial demonstrations of packet switching technology described earlier.
Likewise, the Packet Satellite, Packet Radio and several other DARPA computer science research programs were multi-contractor collaborative activities that heavily used whatever available mechanisms there were to coordinate their efforts, starting with electronic mail and adding file sharing, remote access, and eventually World Wide Web capabilities.
In the late s, recognizing that the growth of the Internet was accompanied by a growth in the size of the interested research community and therefore an increased need for coordination mechanisms, Vint Cerf, then manager of the Internet Program at DARPA, formed several coordination bodies — an International Cooperation Board ICB , chaired by Peter Kirstein of UCL, to coordinate activities with some cooperating European countries centered on Packet Satellite research, an Internet Research Group which was an inclusive group providing an environment for general exchange of information, and an Internet Configuration Control Board ICCB , chaired by Clark.
In , when Barry Leiner took over management of the Internet research program at DARPA, he and Clark recognized that the continuing growth of the Internet community demanded a restructuring of the coordination mechanisms.
The ICCB was disbanded and in its place a structure of Task Forces was formed, each focused on a particular area of the technology e. It of course was only a coincidence that the chairs of the Task Forces were the same people as the members of the old ICCB, and Dave Clark continued to act as chair. This growth was complemented by a major expansion in the community. In addition to NSFNet and the various US and international government-funded activities, interest in the commercial sector was beginning to grow.
As a result, the IAB was left without a primary sponsor and increasingly assumed the mantle of leadership.
The growth in the commercial sector brought with it increased concern regarding the standards process itself. Increased attention was paid to making the process open and fair. In , yet another reorganization took place. In , the Internet Activities Board was re-organized and re-named the Internet Architecture Board operating under the auspices of the Internet Society.
The recent development and widespread deployment of the World Wide Web has brought with it a new community, as many of the people working on the WWW have not thought of themselves as primarily network researchers and developers. Thus, through the over two decades of Internet activity, we have seen a steady evolution of organizational structures designed to support and facilitate an ever-increasing community working collaboratively on Internet issues. Commercialization of the Internet involved not only the development of competitive, private network services, but also the development of commercial products implementing the Internet technology.
Unfortunately they lacked both real information about how the technology was supposed to work and how the customers planned on using this approach to networking. The speakers came mostly from the DARPA research community who had both developed these protocols and used them in day-to-day work.https://leezbelisleacu.cf
IEEE Computer Society Predicts the Future of Tech: Top 10 Technology Trends for 12222
About vendor personnel came to listen to 50 inventors and experimenters. The results were surprises on both sides: the vendors were amazed to find that the inventors were so open about the way things worked and what still did not work and the inventors were pleased to listen to new problems they had not considered, but were being discovered by the vendors in the field.
Thus a two-way discussion was formed that has lasted for over a decade. In September of the first Interop trade show was born. It did. The Interop trade show has grown immensely since then and today it is held in 7 locations around the world each year to an audience of over , people who come to learn which products work with each other in a seamless manner, learn about the latest products, and discuss the latest technology.
Starting with a few hundred attendees mostly from academia and paid for by the government, these meetings now often exceed a thousand attendees, mostly from the vendor community and paid for by the attendees themselves. The reason it is so useful is that it is composed of all stakeholders: researchers, end users and vendors.
Network management provides an example of the interplay between the research and commercial communities. In the beginning of the Internet, the emphasis was on defining and implementing protocols that achieved interoperation.
As the network grew larger, it became clear that the sometime ad hoc procedures used to manage the network would not scale. Manual configuration of tables was replaced by distributed automated algorithms, and better tools were devised to isolate faults. In it became clear that a protocol was needed that would permit the elements of the network, such as the routers, to be remotely managed in a uniform way. The market could choose the one it found more suitable.
SNMP is now used almost universally for network-based management. In the last few years, we have seen a new phase of commercialization. Originally, commercial efforts mainly comprised vendors providing the basic networking products, and service providers offering the connectivity and basic Internet services.
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This has been tremendously accelerated by the widespread and rapid adoption of browsers and the World Wide Web technology, allowing users easy access to information linked throughout the globe. Products are available to facilitate the provisioning of that information and many of the latest developments in technology have been aimed at providing increasingly sophisticated information services on top of the basic Internet data communications. This definition was developed in consultation with members of the internet and intellectual property rights communities. The Internet has changed much in the two decades since it came into existence.
It was conceived in the era of time-sharing, but has survived into the era of personal computers, client-server and peer-to-peer computing, and the network computer. It was designed before LANs existed, but has accommodated that new network technology, as well as the more recent ATM and frame switched services. It was envisioned as supporting a range of functions from file sharing and remote login to resource sharing and collaboration, and has spawned electronic mail and more recently the World Wide Web.
But most important, it started as the creation of a small band of dedicated researchers, and has grown to be a commercial success with billions of dollars of annual investment. One should not conclude that the Internet has now finished changing. The Internet, although a network in name and geography, is a creature of the computer, not the traditional network of the telephone or television industry.
It will, indeed it must, continue to change and evolve at the speed of the computer industry if it is to remain relevant. It is now changing to provide new services such as real time transport, in order to support, for example, audio and video streams. The availability of pervasive networking i. This evolution will bring us new applications — Internet telephone and, slightly further out, Internet television.
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It is evolving to permit more sophisticated forms of pricing and cost recovery, a perhaps painful requirement in this commercial world. It is changing to accommodate yet another generation of underlying network technologies with different characteristics and requirements, e. New modes of access and new forms of service will spawn new applications, which in turn will drive further evolution of the net itself. The most pressing question for the future of the Internet is not how the technology will change, but how the process of change and evolution itself will be managed.
As this paper describes, the architecture of the Internet has always been driven by a core group of designers, but the form of that group has changed as the number of interested parties has grown. With the success of the Internet has come a proliferation of stakeholders — stakeholders now with an economic as well as an intellectual investment in the network.
We now see, in the debates over control of the domain name space and the form of the next generation IP addresses, a struggle to find the next social structure that will guide the Internet in the future. The form of that structure will be harder to find, given the large number of concerned stakeholders. At the same time, the industry struggles to find the economic rationale for the large investment needed for the future growth, for example to upgrade residential access to a more suitable technology.
If the Internet stumbles, it will not be because we lack for technology, vision, or motivation. It will be because we cannot set a direction and march collectively into the future. The authors would like to express their appreciation to Andy Rosenbloom, CACM Senior Editor, for both instigating the writing of this article and his invaluable assistance in editing both this and the abbreviated version. However, the later work on Internetting did emphasize robustness and survivability, including the capability to withstand losses of large portions of the underlying networks.
Cerf and R.
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COM, V 5, pp. Systems, March Kahn, Communications Principles for Operating Systems. Internal BBN memorandum, Jan. He passed away in April Vinton G. David D. Robert E. Daniel C. Lawrence G. Brief History of the Internet.
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Introduction Published Barry M. Communications would be on a best effort basis. Black boxes would be used to connect the networks; these would later be called gateways and routers. There would be no information retained by the gateways about the individual flows of packets passing through them, thereby keeping them simple and avoiding complicated adaptation and recovery from various failure modes.
There would be no global control at the operations level.
Other key issues that needed to be addressed were: Algorithms to prevent lost packets from permanently disabling communications and enabling them to be successfully retransmitted from the source. Gateway functions to allow it to forward packets appropriately. This included interpreting IP headers for routing, handling interfaces, breaking packets into smaller pieces if necessary, etc.
The need for end-end checksums, reassembly of packets from fragments and detection of duplicates, if any. The need for global addressing Techniques for host-to-host flow control. Interfacing with the various operating systems There were also other concerns, such as implementation efficiency, internetwork performance, but these were secondary considerations at first. Some basic approaches emerged from this collaboration between Kahn and Cerf: Communication between two processes would logically consist of a very long stream of bytes they called them octets.
The position of any octet in the stream would be used to identify it. Flow control would be done by using sliding windows and acknowledgments acks. The destination could select when to acknowledge and each ack returned would be cumulative for all packets received to that point. It was left open as to exactly how the source and destination would agree on the parameters of the windowing to be used.
Defaults were used initially. The published papers are expected to present results of significant value to solve the various problems with application services and other problems which are within the scope of HCIS. In addition, we expect they will trigger further related research and technological improvements relevant to our future lives.
Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences stands for the continuously evolving and converging information technologies, including:. These are the hot topics that will satisfy the ever-changing needs of a world-wide audience. In approximately 5 to 10 years the editors plan to include new emerging topics to the journal scope, in order to make the journal reflect future generations' IT related human-centric computing and information sciences.
Speed 75 days to first decision for reviewed manuscripts only 43 days to first decision for all manuscripts 95 days from submission to acceptance 16 days from acceptance to publication. Citation Impact 3. Learn more here. Skip to main content Advertisement. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search.