Essay on english civil war causes
From to , Charles argued with parliament over most issues, but money and religion were the most common causes of arguments. In , Charles copied his father. He refused to let Parliament meet. Members of Parliament arrived at Westminster to find that the doors had been locked with large chains and padlocks. They were locked out for eleven years — a period they called the Eleven Years Tyranny.
Charles ruled by using the Court of Star Chamber. To raise money for the king, the Court heavily fined those brought before it.
Causes of the English Civil War
Rich men were persuaded to buy titles. If they refused to do so, they were fined the same sum of money it would have cost for a title anyway! In Charles ordered that everyone in the country should pay Ship Money. This was historically a tax paid by coastal towns and villages to pay for the upkeep of the navy. In one sense, Charles was correct, but such was the relationship between him and the powerful men of the kingdom, that this issue caused a huge argument between both sides.
One of the more powerful men in the nation was John Hampden.
He had been a Member of Parliament. He refused to pay the new tax as Parliament had not agreed to it. Hampden was put on trial and found guilty. However, he had become a hero for standing up to the king. There is no record of any Ship Money being extensively collected in the areas Charles had wanted it extended to. Charles also clashed with the Scots. He ordered that they should use a new prayer book for their church services. This angered the Scots so much that they invaded England in As Charles was short of money to fight the Scots, he had to recall Parliament in as only they had the necessary money needed to fight a war and the required authority to collect extra money.
After a trial, Strafford was executed in Parliament also demanded that Charles get rid of the Court of Star Chamber. By , relations between Parliament and Charles had become very bad. Charles had to do as Parliament wished as they had the ability to raise the money that Charles needed. In , he went to Parliament with soldiers to arrest his five biggest critics.
Someone close to the king had already tipped off Parliament that these men were about to be arrested and they had already fled to the safety of the city of London where they could easily hide from the king. However, Charles had shown his true side. Members of Parliament represented the people.
Here was Charles attempting to arrest five Members of Parliament simply because they dared to criticise him. If Charles was prepared to arrest five Members of Parliament, how many others were not safe? Even Charles realised that things had broken down between him and Parliament. Both were failures and English soldiers retreated in great numbers in The essential reason for this was the drying up of funds to support the fighting. In a desperate attempt to increase the current taxes enforced on the public, Charles called together the Parliament which he had vowed never to call again after dissolving it three times prior Gentles By this point, the majority of the Parliament opposed the taxation put in place by the King.
He had recently implemented an additional tax called ship money. This was a tax used specifically to aid the building and maintenance of the Royal Navy. They also passed bills that abolished all taxes without the consent of the parliament. King Charles I, to prevent immediate rebellion, signed all of these bills into law Lace By doing so, he greatly limited his own power in an attempt for appeasement. Charles ruled peacefully for the following year until October of It was during this month that rumors spread throughout the nation of England that Irish citizens had begun a rebellion against English rule.
The specifics of the rumors varied. Some claimed that over one hundred thousand English women and children had been killed by Irish mobs. In actuality approximately four thousand English citizens were killed, and very few were women or children. Nonetheless, it was clear that action had to be taken by King Charles I. While these goings on occurred, a member of parliament who opposed the King took it upon himself to present a bill to the parliament.
Parliament voted and the bill was passed by a very small margin. Charles responded by arresting five members of the parliament, including the composer of the bill. King Charles I personally traveled to the next parliament meeting, only to find that the five persons to be arrested had been notified of their arrest beforehand and had fled.
The conflict between the King and the parliament had reached its breaking point. Civil war was eminent Russell The two sides, those supporting the King and those supporting the parliament, built up their armed forces and raised money in anticipation of the upcoming war. On August 22, Charles I officially declared war in a public announcement and requested his supporters, the Royalists, take action to assist him in his effort against the parliamentarians as they would be known.
As in many wars, the two sides created mocking nicknames for each other.
The Royalists were called Cavaliers, a reference to the Spanish word caballeros meaning mounted knight which emphasized the quasi-Catholic customs of the King. The parliamentarians were known as the Roundheads. The Roundheads were in actuality an organization of apprentices in London who cut their hair very short Lace The support for both sides displayed social variety.
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The lords of the various territories of England were practically evenly split between the Parliamentarians and Royalists. However, the more influential lords mainly sided with the King. These lords were also vastly skilled as riding horses and trained in fighting on horseback. This presented the Royalists with the advantage during the beginning years of the war in which large expanses of land had to be crossed during battles.
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In one of the first battles, the Battle of Edge Hill, the sides found it very difficult to control their vast armies. At one point, a large portion of the Royalist cavalrymen halted while the rest continued to ransack the belongings of the Parliamentarians who had been forced into retreat. This caused mass confusion on both sides fighting. It resulted in the Parliamentarians returning to the battlefield to continue fighting.
The war ended at dusk with both sides agreeing to continue in the morning. This never came to be and the battle was ended with the Parliamentarians taking heavier loses than the Royalists. In this way, the Royalists started the war off on a high note. The battles for the next two years resulted in much the same way, with both sides claiming victory.
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However, a trend began to form in His strategy to send the cavalry into battle in waves proved revolutionary in these conflicts Lace He led the army into battles in which victory seemed ineffable, including many where the Royalist army outnumbered the Parliamentarian cavalry 2 to 1 and surprise attacks on the Parliamentarian bases. The soldiers under his control fought heroically and in many cases were able to successfully drive the Royalists back to their own camps. After these battles it became clear that the war would continue on for an inconceivable amount of time.
However, neither side surrendered but rather continued to recruit soldiers and raise money and supplies to fight on. In the tide of the war shifted to the side of the Parliamentarians. In the battle of Marston Moor Royalist forces were outnumbered and suffered a great defeat. Likewise, in the battle of Naseby the Royalists were defeated in a mere three hours. Nearly all of their foot soldiers were killed and a large portion of their cavalry was taken out by the well strategized effort of the Parliamentarians on behalf of Oliver Cromwell Ashley , This battle ended the first portion of the English Civil War.
The fighting would continue for another five years. The battles would conclude with much the same results and in the Royalists surrendered Ashley A remonstrance was quickly drafted by a member of the Parliament, Ireton. It called for many constitutional reforms and also the immediate placement of the King on trial. The King was placed on trial, by the decision of the Parliament, and was sentenced to death by execution.