Research paper on poverty

David also said that the connection between overt colonial mentality and mental health may be dependent on the covert aspect of colonial mentality. Overall, this researcher created an important way to measure this concept and has shown through these empirical studies that colonial mentality in fact exists in overt and covert forms within Filipino populations.

He hopes that it will be used as a model to understand other oppressed groups. Acknowledging that colonial mentality exists is important, and several other studies touch on this concept and measure it in different ways Felipe, ; Lehman discovered that a complicated connection exists between Filipino cultural values and negative body images, and colonial mentality is a significant factor. Lehman suggested that: Out of the process of colonization emerged a new Filipino culture, forced to adapt to the standards of Western ideals in order to preserve their cultural legacy.

Colonial mentality as manifested in present day Filipino might be the remnants of this adaptation and appears to have lasting effects on not only the racial identity of Filipino, but also how others perceive themselves and others physically. This author also mentioned clinical implications, including the importance of factoring in cultural expectations and ethnic identity into the assessment and treatment for body image disturbances and to assess how prevalent colonial mentality factors into a Filipino Lehman, Felipe conducted a quantitative study that uses colonial mentality as a framework in her examination of sexist and racist discrimination experienced by Filipino women, and additionally examines clinical implications.

Differences of experiences in colonial mentality among varying generations were examined. These manifestations may be linked to negative mental health outcomes like depression and lowered self-esteem, and she used this study to inform clinical treatment Felipe, The author highlighted the importance of examining how colonial mentality is expressed specifically to better recognize and understand its psychological impacts and called for further research on this topic Felipe, This study uncovered how these intersections might illuminate factors that contribute to depression.

Again, mental health was an element of interest in this study. The study sought to understand the role of colonial mentality in ethnic identity development, and how this impacted bicultural competence, and overall mental and emotional well-being Ferrera, Through individual interviews and focus groups, Ferrera gathered data and had participants complete a self-selecting questionnaire to measure ethnic identity, perceived discrimination, colonial mentality, depression, and self-esteem, among other measures.

Murillo assessed the relationship between ethnic identity, colonial mentality, and the parenting style of Filipinos. The author discovered that a relationship exists between ethnic identity and parenting style and that no relationship exists between colonial mentality and ethnic identity Murillo, I thought it was interesting that this researcher did not find a relationship between colonial mentality and ethnic identity, and my study addressed these concepts further.

Here, David and Nadal acknowledged colonial mentality and the continued effects on mental health but focused on the Filipino immigrant experience. Conversely, this research is focused on the second generation and subsequent generations Filipino American experiences with colonial mentality and mental health. She followed a group of eight Filipinos in Northern California who immigrated after for over a year.

Poverty in America Essay | Bartleby

She had the group participate in in-depth group dialogues and interviews to discuss and then write about their decolonization experience. Her research questions focused on the manifestations of decolonization, the turning points where participants felt the need to reconnect or rediscover their ethnic roots, what participants did to decolonize, and the role of the Filipino community, the educational system, and popular culture in decolonization Strobel, Strobel deconstructed decolonization into three categories in a detailed chart.

Revilla proposes some strategies such as questioning racism and getting involved in political and cultural activism. De Jesus and Root compiled essays and stories by Filipino and Filipino American authors into books that addressed loss and trauma within Filipino history. The narratives display the depth of the multi-faceted Filipino American experience. Woven into many of these stories and studies at separate times is colonial mentality, identity, decolonization, and mental health, and my study addressed the intersection of all of these themes.

On the other hand, the sample survey allows the researcher to secure uniform but superficial information about some portion of the population. As scholars, they are to enjoy free tuition fees and other privileges accorded to them by CHED. Materials: The instrument used in this experiment to measure the reliability of the research is the Convenience Sampling formula for the purpose of determining the probability of understanding the mindset of poor Filipinos in the urban and rural areas of the city of Zamboanga. Survey questionnaires are to be distributed to each of the respondents for purposes of eliciting answers from them conveniently designed in the most comprehensible manner befitting to their level of understanding.

Research Design: This study utilized the descriptive survey method. This method was preferred for this kind of study because it deals more on fact-finding with adequate interpretation. The main intention in using this method is to collect data for problem solving rather for hypothesis. Descriptive research involves collection of data in order to answer the question concerning the current status of the subject under this particular study.

It determines and qualifies the attitudes and opinions of the group of persons that provide information needed for the research. The questions are so simple that it can immediately be answered from even an ordinary person without formal education. This qualitative study entitled: Poverty and the Filipino Mindset has stemmed from the personal concern of the researcher to identify the problems among the most marginalized poor people in the city of Zamboanga with an income bracket of less than ten 10 thousand pesos monthly, with no permanent jobs and who does not own any house and lot.

The study involves thirty seven 37 key informants. Adopting the Survey Questionnaires Method, this study focuses on the following specific areas of concern. To determine the socio-economic mindsets of poor people who are in dire poverty and whose mentality dispossesses them the ability to overcome their state of affairs to better improve their financial conditions.

The questionnaires was specifically formulated to anchor upon the respondents economic conditions such as property ownership if they have any , education and training, ethnicity, socio-economic barriers or inequity, environmental influence, psychological influences, religious beliefs and social upbringing to mention a few. The following tables below shows the total number of participants who are students coming from the different barangays of the City of Zamboanga and are enrolled in various courses offered at WMSU. It also illustrates the various responses of the respondents regarding the questions drawn out for them in the questionnaires.

Table 4. I am poor because my parents are lazy. Many of these very poor families would even be contented in savoring rice with a very little amount of salt. There exists, as the table shows, a kind of physiological deprivation as when people are poor because they lacked the necessary income for these basic necessities. Both income and basic needs are concepts of poverty that stems from physiological deprivation.

The poor are most vulnerable to financial and price shocks and natural disasters. Often their efforts to cope with these shocks and make up for lost livelihoods and income result in deeper levels of indebtedness. This is followed by 10 out of the 37 respondents who said that being timid or not ingenious walang diskarte was their answer to the same question elicited. Clearly, this indicates that lack of education is still the common ground why poor people are timid and they find it hard to look for better opportunities to improve their lives.

Lacked of education grounds the very character of poor individuals from exerting ingenious effort to better themselves in life. Lack of education and lack of opportunities are closely interrelated since education is the gateway for all kinds of opportunities open to the individuals seeking for means of survival. Poor people wanted They have accepted their socio-economic to remain poor 11 11 Again, such manifestations are but indicators of psychological disorder over a long period of colonialism that has metamorphosed the poor to become subservient, meek, indolent, inferior, lack of initiative, mendicant attitude and countless other negative traits known to Filipinos and foreigners.

Colonial mentality is what serious minded people like us use to call it, and it is a kind of sickness.

Zegeye Paulos 's research paper Presentation on Determinantes of Poverty in rural HHs

In effect, some of the so-called beneficiaries would just take the advantage in getting the money and use it for capital like buying pigs for small time piggery purposes without really enrolling in college. Some parents do not even encourage their children to go to school because they simply wanted them to start working and earn a living to help augment their financial need.

This reality is commonly existing in the rural communities were the poverty index is higher than those in the urban areas. The survey also found that According to the PSA, the national poverty threshold in stood at P10, per month, meaning a family of five needed to earn that much to be able to eat, have shelter, travel, buy medicine, or go to school, among other life necessities.

Again, this is due to simple ignorance or lack of education.

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A mental condition or disease that shackles them for years or even for their entire lifetime. This has to be remedied in order for it to be put to stop. Filipinos love the drama of miracles. This researcher is a Catholic but he does have a problem with fanatic devotions that bring unnecessary harm. They have more days to do that in a more solemn manner because the image is just inside the Quiapo church. The truth is miracles happen every day.

And the good and reliable ones are those that are disguised in everyday opportunities to improve our lives. This mental disease has to be cured if only to gradually resolve the issue of poverty among the people not only in Zamboanga City but more so all over the country along with other factors external to the person in dire poverty.

Their experiences of poverty in the crucial years of their mental development negatively affected their capacity to learn and their ability to regulate negative emotions — factors that may impede their economic progress as adults. Furthermore, poverty itself impedes their cognitive function, making them prone to bad decisions that could worsen their situation. Some poor Filipinos are happy not because they have a loser mentality.

Some poor Filipinos are happy simply because nothing is preventing them from feeling otherwise. In any case, one should not call poor people losers, because by doing so will only reinforce the psychological barriers that impede their cognitive functioning. The debilitating mindset of every Filipino, be they affluent or lacking, is the main cause of poverty in this country. It is in the thinking and believing that nothing else can be done for one to prosper and have a good life. What we think, we act, and we feel are all the result of an improper mindset with too much religion.

There is nothing wrong on being religious because humans need it for spiritual guidance, but this is ridiculous. So what if God loves poor people? And the rest is a resultant of it.


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The people in the culture of poverty have a strong feeling of marginality, of helplessness, of dependency, of not belonging. They are like aliens in their own country, convinced that the existing institutions do not serve their interests and needs. Along with this feeling of powerlessness is a widespread feeling of inferiority, of personal unworthiness.

People with a culture of poverty have very little sense of history. They are a marginal people who know only of their own troubles, their own local conditions, their own neighborhood, their own way of life. Usually, they neither have the knowledge, the vision, nor the ideology to see the similarities between their problems and those of others like themselves elsewhere in the world. In other words, they are not class conscious, although they are very sensitive indeed to status distinctions.

This researcher would not delve much on the accuracy of the measures of poverty but he wish to discuss a very fundamental truth about poverty. Poverty is a mindset. And he finds it alarming that more than half of our countrymen are in this situation because he knew how powerful the mind is: Whether you think you can or you cannot, you are right!

It is a mindset as much as a reality. That is, many people feel that they are poor and in need of money without knowing that they already have what they need. Such is the state of sheer mendicant mindset. Recommendations: In poverty studies, education has been considered to be the fulcrum that tips and breaks the poverty cycle, the relatively high percentage For Zamboanga City, this proportion of the total population is about , people.

The rural poverty level in the rural areas has been found to be generally higher than the urban poverty level.

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Human capabilities are best expanded through their direct exercise. Sectoral biases to addressing poverty should be checked and more converging efforts and activities should be done in responding to the needs of the poor masses. Economic growth did not translate into poverty reduction in recent years. While the country experienced moderate economic growth in recent years, poverty reduction has been slow.

The quality of growth matters and persistent inequality mitigates the positive impact of growth on poverty reduction. The solution to poverty is thus of public interest. Benefits will not only accrue to those who get out of poverty but also to society as at large. Poverty remains mainly a rural phenomenon though urban poverty is on the rise. The majority of the poor are still found in rural areas and in the agriculture sector. They are mostly farmers and fishers. However, there are an increasing number of poor households in urban areas, typically found in the informal sector.

Poverty levels are strongly linked to educational attainment. The heads of two of three poor households have only reached elementary education and below. The poor have large families, with six or more members. Population management will be critical for an effective poverty reduction strategy. Many Filipino households remain vulnerable to shocks and risks. This is highlighted by the escalating conflict in Mindanao and the current global financial crisis. An effective poverty strategy must incorporate social protection.

Governance and institutional constraints remain in the poverty response. Measures to improve this must be an important focus of attention in formulating a revised government strategy. There is weak local government capacity for implementing poverty reduction programs. Effective delivery of basic social services and poverty-related programs at the local levels will hasten poverty eradication.

Multidimensional responses to poverty reduction are needed. The poverty problem is multi-dimensional, and thus the response should be multi-agency and multi- sector and involve multiple stakeholders. Convergence has been the right approach and this must continue to be practiced more effectively. Further research on chronic poverty is needed. There are very few micro studies that examine chronic poverty and how the poor escape poverty traps. These studies are important in the formulation of more effective policies and programs.

Feminism across our generations. In De Jesus, M. L, Ed. New York: Routledge. Bergano, A. Images, roles, and expectations of Filipino Americans by Filipino Americans. In Root, M. A colonial mentality model of depression for Filipino Americans.

Poverty in America

Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Testing the validity of the colonial mentality implicit association test and the interactive effects of covert and overt colonial mentality on filipino american mental health. Asian American Journal of Psychology. David E.

Information Age Publishing, Inc. David, E. The colonial context of filipino american immigrants' psychological experiences. Colonial mentality: A review and recommendation for filipino American psychology. The colonial mentality scale CMS for filipino americans:Scale construction and psychological implications. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53 2 Relationship of colonial mentality with filipina american experiences of racism and sexism. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,. Flores, H. Krueger, A. Schkade, D.


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Schwarz, N. In the presidential campaigns, Donald Trump promised that he would work tirelessly to ensure that the rights of American workers are protected. After election into office, Donald has gone a long way into fulfilling his promises and ensuring Americans are well paid and working in decent jobs. The Obama administration fought against poverty by pushing the Recovery Act. Through the Act, Obama stimulated growth, provided aid to states and invested immensely in infrastructure.

For instance, through saving the auto industry, the Obama administration saved at least two million jobs and kept an entire region out of severe depression. In , the benefits of recovery were felt by most Americans with a massive decline in poverty rate due to the improvements in the labor market.

Despite the claims of pundits and policymakers, a majority of the poor people are employees, and their wages and salaries are their primary source of income. The problem arises where their salaries and wages are too low. Therefore, Obama heavily relied on an execution plan rather than enforcement. In the process, some states also increased their minimum wages which meant that there would be an increase in salary and a decrease in low-wage employees.

On employment, the US government has worked tirelessly to enforce and update Labor standards, end irregular scheduling, provide paid sick and family leave, and offer a sturdy safety net. The support for social welfare programs by the American government has gone a long way in improving the lives of many poor Americans. There have been people who have questioned the credibility of this services and whether they work or not.

In an article by Kasperkevic, he explains that these social services have played a significant role in the reduction of poverty among American citizens. Over the years, the US has embraced different approaches with the aim of reducing poverty in the nation and the efforts have been successful.

A Good Example Of A Research Paper About Poverty

The efforts of the American government in the fight against poverty are evident. Karnani, A. Fighting poverty together: rethinking strategies for business, governments, and civil society to reduce poverty. Kneebone, E. Concentrated Poverty in the Wake of the Great Recession. Kasperkevic, J. Welfare programs shown to reduce poverty in America. Macartney, S. Poverty rates for selected detailed race and Hispanic groups by state and place: McGuinn, P.

From no child left behind to the every student succeeds act: Federalism and the education legacy of the Obama administration.


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